Volume 5.19 | May 19

Pulmonary Cell News 5.19 May 19, 2016
Pulmonary Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
SARS Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease Induces Egr-1-Dependent Up-Regulation of TGF-β1 via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 Pathway
The authors investigated the mechanisms of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro)-induced TGF-β1 promoter activation in human lung epithelial cells and mouse models. SARS-CoV PLpro dose- and time-dependently up-regulated TGF-β1 and vimentin in A549 cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article
Alt-Text: Video Protocol: Mucociliary Differentiation of Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Alveolar Epithelial Cell–Derived Prostaglandin E2 Serves as a Request Signal for Macrophage Secretion of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 during Innate Inflammation
In vitro studies revealed that alveolar epithelial cell-conditioned medium (AEC-CM) enhanced AM suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 secretion above basal levels. Increased amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were present in AEC-CM after LPS challenge, and both pharmacologic inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in AECs and neutralization of PGE2 in AEC-CM implicated this prostanoid as the major AEC-derived factor mediating enhanced AM SOCS3 secretion. [J Immunol] Abstract

Cellular Response of Mucociliary Differentiated Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Diesel Exhaust
Scientists aimed to use a controlled in vitro exposure system to whole diesel exhaust to study the effect of whole diesel exhaust concentration and exposure duration on mucociliary differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells. [Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol] Abstract

Bile Acids Induce Activation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Lung Fibroblasts through Farnesoid X Receptor-Dependent and Independent Pathways
Human alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and normal or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-derived lung fibroblast cells were incubated with the three major bile acids: lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. The AECs injury indices, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and lung fibroblast activation were evaluated. [Respirology] Abstract

Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. [PLoS One] Full Article

Airway Epithelial Cell Exposure to Distinct E-Cigarette Liquid Flavorings Reveals Toxicity Thresholds and Activation of CFTR by the Chocolate Flavoring 2,5-Dimethypyrazine
Scientists examined the impact of common e-liquid flavoring chemicals on the airway epithelium, the cellular monolayer that provides the first line of defense against inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants. [Respir Res] Full Article

Hyperoxia-Mediated LC3B Activation Contributes to the Impaired Transdifferentiation of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells (AECIIs) to Type I Cells (AECIs)
Primary rat AECIIs were cultured under hyperoxic condition up to 24 hours to investigate the underlying mechanisms. They found that hyperoxia promoted a significant and time-dependent increase of AECII marker surfactant protein-C in lung. [Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol] Abstract

LUNG CANCER

Induction of C/EBP Homologous Protein-Mediated Apoptosis and Autophagy by Licochalcone A in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
The anti-cancer effects and potential mechanisms of licochalcone A (LCA) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were studied. LCA decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase release, and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in NSCLC cells while not in human embryonic lung fibroblast cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Upregulated Long Non-Coding RNA AGAP2-AS1 Represses LATS2 and KLF2 Expression through Interacting with EZH2 and LSD1 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Researchers performed comprehensive analyses of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples by using microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus. After validation in a cohort of 80 pairs of NSCLC tissues, they identified a differentially expressed novel oncogenic lncRNA termed as AGAP2-AS1. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Ginkgolic Acid Inhibits Invasion and Migration and TGF-β-Induced EMT of Lung Cancer Cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR Inactivation
Researchers investigated whether ginkgolic acid can affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells and the related underlying mechanism(s) of its actions. They found that ginkgolic acid C15:1 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in both A549 and H1299 lung cancer cells. [J Cell Physiol] Abstract

MicroRNA-663a Is Downregulated in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting JunD
Investigators identified the expression pattern, biological roles and potential mechanisms by which miR-663a dysregulation is associated with non-small cell lung cancer. [BMC Cancer] Full Article

Downregulation of Leptin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Lung Cancer Cells via the Notch and JAK/STAT3 Signaling Pathways
The authors investigated the biological roles of leptin and the mechanisms attributed to its action in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. [Biol Open] Full Article

Air-Liquid Interface Culture for Respiratory Research: Watch Q&A Video
 
REVIEWS
COPD Immunopathology
The authors summarize and discuss the immunopathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, of different severity, compared with control smokers with normal lung function. [Semin Immunopathol] Full Article

The Emerging Role and Promise of Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer Treatment
Scientists review the recent progress of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in lung cancer, with a particular focus on the multiple molecular roles of regulatory lncRNAs on the molecular signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis and the resistance to such therapies. [Cell Physiol Biochem] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pulmonary cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
New KEYTRUDA® (Pembrolizumab) Data Includes Three-Year Overall Survival Data in Melanoma and Updated Overall Survival Data in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer As Well As Updated Findings in Head and Neck Cancer
Merck announced that new and updated data investigating KEYTRUDA®, the company’s anti-PD-1 therapy, in more than 15 types of cancer will be presented. [Press release from Merck & Co., Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Incyte Highlights Jakafi® (Ruxolitinib) and Capmatinib Abstracts to Be Presented
Incyte Corporation announced that more than 20 abstracts featuring its clinical development candidates will be presented. [Press release from Incyte Corporation discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago and the European Hematology Association (EHA) Annual Meeting, Copenhagen] Press Release

Chugai to Present Japanese Phase III Results on Alecensa®
Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. announced that the results of the Japanese Phase III study of Alecensa®, in ALK fusion gene positive non-small cell lung cancer patients, will be presented. [Press release from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Two-Year Overall Survival Data from Two Pivotal Opdivo® (Nivolumab) Trials Demonstrate Sustained Benefit In Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced two-year overall survival data from two pivotal Phase III studies evaluating Opdivo versus docetaxel in previously treated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. [Press release from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and Pfizer to Present Avelumab Data in Seven Different Cancers
Merck KGaA and Pfizer announced that avelumab presentations across seven different tumor types, including two oral presentations, will be featured. [Press release from Pfizer Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Phase III Study of Genentech’s Alecensa® (Alectinib) Showed Superior Efficacy versus Crizotinib in Japanese People with a Specific Type of Lung Cancer
Genentech announced that Alecensa®, an oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, reduced the risk of disease worsening or death by 66 percent compared to crizotinib in Japanese people with advanced or recurrent, ALK-positive NSCLC. [Press release from Genentech, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Oncolytics Biotech® Inc. Reports Preliminary Data from Randomized Phase II Study of REOLYSIN® in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Oncolytics Biotech Inc. announced preliminary data from a randomized, Phase II clinical study of REOLYSIN®. [Press release from Oncolytics Biotech Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

AbbVie Demonstrates Progress in Oncology Research with Multiple Abstracts Evaluating Eight Medicines across Cancer Types
AbbVie will present data from multiple clinical trials evaluating the company’s portfolio of approved and investigational oncology medicines. [Press release from AbbVie discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Novartis to Present Pivotal Data in Hematologic and Solid Tumor Cancers
Novartis will highlight the strength of its oncology research programs. Data will demonstrate advances across several of the company’s core disease areas of focus including leukemias and lung, melanoma and breast cancers. [Press release from Novartis AG discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

Data Underscore Lilly’s Diverse Oncology Pipeline and Portfolio
Several studies will underscore the strength of Eli Lilly and Company’s diverse clinical cancer pipeline and portfolio. [Press release from Eli Lilly and Company discussing research to be presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Nivalis Therapeutics Announces First Patient Dosed in Second Phase II Study of N91115 for Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis
Nivalis Therapeutics, Inc. announced the first patient was dosed in a second Phase II clinical study of its lead investigational drug, N91115, a stabilizer of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. [Nivalis Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

South Korea Is First to Approve Next Generation Lung Cancer Treatment Olmutinib (BI 1482694 / HM61713)
Olmutinib has been approved in South Korea for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer, who had been previously treated with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. [Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Gordon Research Conference – Notch Signaling in Development, Regeneration & Disease
July 31-August 5, 2016
Lewiston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pulmonary cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Scientific Communications and Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Biochemistry/Molecular Biology (National Jewish Health)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (New York University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Research (German Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Lung Disease (Oklahoma State University)

Senior Research Associate – Cell Biology (University College London)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Biology (University of Chicago)

Faculty Positions – Basic or Translational Research (Cleveland Clinic)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Pancreatic and Lung Cancer (University of California – San Francisco)

Postdoctoral Fellows – Cancer Research (National University of Singapore)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Genomics (Brigham & Women’s Hospital – Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position or Research Scientist – Mucosal Immunology (Qu Biologics)

Director Clinical Research – Medical Oncology (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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