Volume 4.40 | Oct 15

Pulmonary Cell News 4.40 October 15, 2015
Pulmonary Cell News
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Identification of Cellular MicroRNA-136 as a Dual Regulator of RIG-I-Mediated Innate Immunity that Antagonizes H5N1 IAV Replication in A549 Cells
The authors performed microRNA microarray analysis using A549 human lung epithelial cells infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The microRNA expression profile of infected cells identified a small number of microRNAs being dysregulated upon H5N1 influenza A virus infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Neutrophil Elastase Differentially Regulates IL-8 and VEGF Production by Cigarette Smoke Extract
Researchers studied the effect of neutrophil elastase on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced IL-8 and VEGF production, and its molecular mechanism in bronchial epithelial cells. CSE increased both IL-8 and VEGF productions in human bronchial epithelial cells. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Pim1 Kinase Activity Preserves Airway Epithelial Integrity upon House Dust Mite Exposure
Investigators hypothesized that Pim1 kinase activity attenuates HDM-induced asthma by preserving airway epithelial integrity. The effects of Pim1 kinase activity on barrier function and release of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1α and CCL20 were studied in vitro in 16HBE and primary bronchial epithelial cells. [Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol] Abstract

CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection
The authors showed that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar or bronchial epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. [PLoS One] Full Article

Budesonide Inhibits Intracellular Infection with Non-Typable Haemophilus influenzae Despite Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Respiratory Cells and Human Lung Tissue: A Role for p38 MAP Kinase
Scientists investigated the effects of budesonide (BUD) on non-typable H. influenzae-induced inflammation and invasive infection. The alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and specimens of human lung tissue were used. Intracellular infection was determined by a lysis/culture assay of infected cells. [Respiration] Abstract

Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I-Like Receptor (RLR)-Mediated Antiviral Innate Immune Responses in the Lower Respiratory Tract: Roles of TRAF3 and TRAF5
Epithelial cells of the lower respiratory tract can be roughly divided into two groups: bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Scientists hypothesized that these cells may play different roles in antiviral innate immunity. They found that BECs exhibited higher antiviral activity than AECs. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract


Aberrantly Expressed miR-582-3p Maintains Lung Cancer Stem Cell-Like Traits by Activating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling
miR-582-3p promotes cancer stem cell traits of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and tumorigenesis and tumor recurrence in vivo. Antagonizing miR-582-3p potently inhibits tumor initiation and progression in xenografted animal models. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Identification of Up- and Down-Regulated Proteins in Pemetrexed-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Flavin Reductase and Calreticulin Play Key Roles in the Development of Pemetrexed-Associated Resistance
Investigators used a pair of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and the pemetrexed-resistant A549/PEM cells, as a model to monitor resistance-dependent cellular responses and identify potential therapeutic targets. [J Proteome Res] Abstract

Direct Regulation of TGFβ-Induced EMT by the Protein Phosphatase Activity of Unphosphorylated PTEN in Lung Cancer Cells
By using lung cancer cells carrying PTEN domain deletions or point mutants, researchers investigated the role of PTEN protein phosphatase activities on TGFβ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. [Cancer Sci] Abstract

Galectin-3 Modulates the EGFR Signaling-Mediated Regulation of Sox2 Expression via c-Myc in Lung Cancer
Galectin-3 facilitated EGF receptor (EGFR) activation and enhanced the sphere formation activity of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, galectin-3 promoted Sox2 expression in an EGFR activation-dependent manner. [Glycobiology] Abstract

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Role of Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Antioxidant Protection
The authors discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of sulfur mustard (SM) on pulmonary damage, the importance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces oxidative stress and antioxidants depletion along with research on antioxidant therapy as a suitable antidote. [Inhal Toxicol] Abstract

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Nabriva Presents Data on Lefamulin
Nabriva is developing its lead product candidate, lefamulin, to be the first systemically available pleuromutilin for human use and expects to begin enrolling patients in the first of two Phase III clinical studies of lefamulin for the treatment of community acquired bacterial pneumonia in the fourth quarter of 2015. [Press release from Nabriva Therapeutics AG discussing research presented at IDWeek 2015, San Diego] Press Release

Concert Pharmaceuticals Highlights CTP-656 Phase I Results
Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc. presented results from a Phase I single ascending dose trial of CTP-656, a next generation potentiator being developed for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. [Press release from Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, Phoenix] Press Release

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Aradigm Corporation Completes Enrollment in the Second Phase III Study of Pulmaquin in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis (ORBIT-3)
Aradigm Corporation announced the completion of enrollment in the ORBIT-3 trial, the second of the two fully enrolled Phase III pivotal clinical trials of Pulmaquin®, Aradigm’s proprietary investigational formulation of inhaled ciprofloxacin, for the treatment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis who have chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [Aradigm Corporation] Press Release

Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Collaboration with Cell Therapy Catapult to Scale Production of AST-VAC2
Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc. has signed an agreement with the UK-based Cell Therapy Catapult to advance development of large scale manufacturing processes for AST-VAC2, Asterias’ allogeneic dendritic cell immunotherapy. As part of this partnership, Cancer Research UK will sponsor and manage a Phase I/IIa clinical trial of AST-VAC2 in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. [Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Corbus Pharmaceuticals Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase II Study of Resunab™ for Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis
Corbus Pharmaceuticals Holdings, Inc. announced that the first subject was dosed in the Phase II clinical study of its investigational new drug Resunab™ for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. [Corbus Pharmaceuticals Holdings, Inc.] Press Release

Galapagos Advances Triple Combination Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis
Galapagos NV announced that GLPG2665 has been selected as the first next generation corrector compound candidate. GLPG2665 is the first candidate to complete the potential triple combination therapy for the delta F508 (class II) mutation in cystic fibrosis. [Galapagos NV] Press Release

Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Opdivo (Nivolumab) Receives Expanded FDA Approval in Previously-Treated Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), Offering Improved Survival to More Patients
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Opdivo injection, for intravenous use, for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Company] Press Release

Cancer Research UK Launches £100 Million Grand Challenges to Tackle the Most Important Questions in Cancer
Cancer Research UK has launched Grand Challenges – the biggest and most ambitious cancer grants in the world – which aim to overcome the greatest barriers standing in the way of beating cancer. The £100 million investment will revolutionize how we diagnose, prevent and treat cancer by uniting teams of the best scientists around the world to come up with answers to crucial questions about how to save more lives from cancer. [Cancer Research UK] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Stem Cells: Development & Management
November 30-December 2, 2015
Phitsanulok, Thailand

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pulmonary cell community.
NEW Faculty Position – Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (Mayo Clinic)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Diseases (Eastern Virginia Medical School)

Clinical Research Fellow – Small Cell Lung Cancer (Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Asthma (The University of Tennessee Health Science Center)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Autoimmune Diseases Affecting the Lung (University of California, San Francisco)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Small Cell Lung Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Lung Cancer (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cancer and Molecular Imaging (University of Michigan)

Postdoctoral Fellow – HMGA Chromatin Remodeling Proteins in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pulmonary Fibrosis (University of Colorado School of Medicine)

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