Volume 2.41 | Oct 17

Pulmonary Cell News 2.41 October 17, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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TOP STORY
Hypoxia Promotes Danger-Mediated Inflammation via RAGE in Cystic Fibrosis
Researchers employed in vivo and in vitro models to study the impact of hypoxia on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression and activity in human and murine cystic fibrosis, the nature of the RAGE ligand and the impact of RAGE on lung inflammation and antimicrobial resistance in fungal and bacterial pneumonia. [Am J Respir Crit Care Med] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Rhinovirus-Induced Interferon Production Is Not Deficient in Well Controlled Asthma
Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were obtained from subjects with asthma and healthy controls and infected with rhinovirus (RV)16 and RV1B, and cells and supernatants harvested at 8, 24 and 48 hours. Interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-λ were the only IFNs induced by RV in HBECs and IFN-λ protein induction was substantially greater than IFN-β. [Thorax] Abstract

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Modulation of Human Rhinovirus-Induced CXCL10 Production by Cigarette Smoke
Scientists used CXCL10 as a model antiviral gene to examine the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke extract inhibits epithelial antiviral immunity. Human rhinovirus (HRV)-induced CXCL10 transcription depends upon activation of nuclear factor-ĸB and IFN regulatory factor-1 and they additionally implicated two signal transducer and activator of transcription consensus sequences in the CXCL10 promoter in HRV-induced CXCL10 expression. [Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol] Abstract

Hypercapnic Acidosis Confers Antioxidant and Anti-Apoptosis Effects against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury
Scientists examined the effects of hypercapnic acidosis on the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, which activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 cascade in both apoptosis and oxidative reactions, in high-pressure ventilation stimulated rat lungs. [Lab Invest] Abstract

Identification of SPLUNC1’s ENaC-Inhibitory Domain Yields Novel Strategies to Treat Sodium Hyperabsorption in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Cultures
Researchers found that an eighteen amino acid peptide, S18, which corresponded to residues G22-A39 of Short Palate Lung and Nasal Epithelial Clone 1 (SPLUNC1)’s N-terminus inhibited epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity to a similar degree as full-length SPLUNC1, whilst SPLUNC1 protein lacking this region was without effect. [Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol] Abstract

Human Metapneumovirus Inhibits the IL-6-Induced JAK/STAT3 Signaling Cascade in Airway Epithelium
Investigators showed that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) can attenuate the interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated JAK/STAT3 signaling cascade in lung epithelial cells. HMPV inhibited a key event in this pathway by impeding the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in A549 cells and in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. [J Gen Virol] Abstract

LUNG CANCER

The Use of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres to Encapsulate Bortezomib and Improve Efficacy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapy
Researchers report the application of hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres (HMSNs) in encapsulating bortezomib (BTZ) for drug delivery. In in vitro cell viability assay on human NSCLC H1299 cells, the half-maximum inhibiting concentration of HMSNs-BTZ was 42% of that for free BTZ in 48 hour treatments. [Biomaterials] Abstract

IGFBP2/FAK Pathway Is Causally Associated with Dasatinib Resistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Scientists analyzed the association between IGFBP2 and response to pathway-targeted agents in seven human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. The results showed that high IGFBP2 levels were associated with resistance to dasatinib, and to a lesser degree to sacaratinib, but not to other agents. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Epigenetic Inactivation of MicroRNA-34b/c Predicts Poor Disease-Free Survival in Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma
Scientists investigated the clinical implications of microRNA-34b/c (miR-34b/c) methylation in early stage lung adenocarcinoma (AC) patients and to determine the functional role of miR-34b/c re-expression in lung AC cell lines. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Gemcitabine Sensitizes Lung Cancer Cells to Fas/FasL System-Mediated Killing
Researchers evaluated the Fas/FasL system involvement in gemcitabine-induced lung cancer cell killing. Gemcitabine increased FasL mRNA and total protein expression, the percentage of H292 cells bearing membrane-bound FasL (mFasL) and of mFasL positive apoptotic H292 cells, as well as caspase-8 and-3 cleavage. [Immunology] Abstract

Low-Dose Hypersensitivity and Bystander Effect Are Not Mutually Exclusive in A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells after Irradiation with Charged Particles
Researchers measured survival fraction of A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with charged particles of various linear energy transfer and determined mechanisms responsible for enhanced cell killing in the low-dose region. [Radiat Res] Abstract

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REVIEWS
β-Adrenoceptor Modulation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Present and Future Perspectives
The authors start with a succinct outline of the evolution in our understanding of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), touching on treatment of COPD with β-AR agonists and the issues of β-AR blockade and cardioselectivity in patients with comorbid cardiovascular disease. They then summarize the current evidence for a COPD benefit from β-AR blockers and hypothesize on the mode of action. [Drugs] Abstract

Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Neonatal Lung Disease – It’s in the Juice
This review highlights the pre-clinical evidence for the therapeutic potential of cell-based therapies in animal models of neonatal chronic lung injury and the multiple therapeutic avenues offered by soluble stem cell-derived factors. [Pediatr Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pulmonary cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Celtaxsys Announces Successful Completion of Phase I Clinical Trial for Development of CTX-4430
Celtaxsys, Inc. announced the achievement of a significant clinical milestone for its lead clinical stage drug candidate, CTX-4430, for treatment of Cystic Fibrosis lung disease. Celtaxsys has successfully completed the first of two clinical trials in its Phase I program, and the first trial conducted through its Australia subsidiary, Celtaxsys Aus Pty Ltd. [Celtaxsys, Inc.] Press Release

UAB Gets $9.7 Million to Find Treatments for Deadly Lung Disease Pulmonary Fibrosis
The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine has received a $9.7 million grant over five years from the National Institutes of Health to identify and test potential therapies for pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating disease with no approved treatments. [The University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

Researchers Develop Stem Cell Therapies for Acute Lung Injury
An estimated 200,000 patients a year have acute respiratory failure in the U.S. and mortality is about 30 to 40 percent, according to Michael Matthay, MD, a critical care specialist and professor of medicine and anesthesia. Matthay is working with Jae-Woo Lee, MD, Kathleen Liu, MD, MAS, PhD, and Carolyn Calfee, MD, MAS, associate professors of medicine and anesthesia, on developing cell-based therapies. [University of California San Francisco] Press Release

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Provides Savara Pharmaceuticals $1.7 Million Award for Development of AeroVanc for MRSA Lung Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Savara Pharmaceuticals announced it has received a $1.7 million research award from Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation Therapeutics, Inc., the nonprofit drug discovery and development affiliate of the CF Foundation. [Savara Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW World Stem Cell Summit 2013
December 4-6, 2013
San Diego, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pulmonary cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Research Associate – Molecular Mechanisms of Endothelial Permeability, Vascular Inflammation, and Pulmonary Injury (University of Illinois)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Emphysema (University College Dublin)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Airway Innate Defense and Biology (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill)

Senior Postdoctoral Fellow – Mechanisms of Lung Injuries (University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Lung Research (Brigham & Women’s Hospital – Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Research Candidate – Chronic Lung Diseases (European Respiratory Society / Marie Curie)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Pulmonary Vascular Inflammation and Dysfunction (University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Respiratory Diseases Research (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Culture Media & Matrices (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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