Volume 2.17 | May 2

Pulmonary Cell News 2.17 May 2, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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The TLR4 Antagonist Eritoran Protects Mice from Lethal Influenza Infection
The authors report that therapeutic administration of Eritoran – a potent, well-tolerated, synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist – blocks influenza-induced lethality in mice, as well as lung pathology, clinical symptoms, cytokine and oxidized phospholipid expression, and decreases viral titres. [Nature] Full Article

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

TNF-α-Mediated Bronchial Barrier Disruption and Regulation by src-Family Kinase Activation
Researchers assessed the effect of TNF-α, with or without src-family kinase inhibitor SU6656, on barrier properties and cytokine release in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cultures. [J Allergy Clin Immun] Abstract

Lung Epithelial Cells Are Essential Effectors of Inducible Resistance to Pneumonia
The inducibility of resistance was tested in mice with deficiencies of leukocyte lineages due to genetic deletions and in wild-type mice with leukocyte populations significantly reduced by antibodies or toxins. Surprisingly, these serial reductions in leukocyte lineages did not appreciably impair inducible resistance, but targeted disruption of toll-like receptor signaling in the lung epithelium resulted in complete abrogation of the protective effect. Isolated lung epithelial cells were also induced to kill pathogens in the absence of leukocytes. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Cell Host Response to Infection with Novel Human Coronavirus EMC Predicts Potential Antivirals and Important Differences with SARS Coronavirus
A novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) was recently identified in the Middle East as the causative agent of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) resembling the illness caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Although derived from the CoV family, the two viruses are genetically distinct and do not use the same receptor. Scientists investigated whether HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV induce similar or distinct host responses after infection of a human lung epithelial cell line. [mBio] Abstract | Full Article

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Phosphorylation of c-Met Tyrosine Residue 1003 Regulates c-Met Intracellular Trafficking and Lung Epithelial Barrier Function
Scientists demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells induced internalization of c-Met via phosphorylation at its tyrosine residue 1003. In addition, it induced epithelial barrier dysfunction as evidenced by a decrease in transepithelial resistance in a time-dependent manner. [Am J Physiol-Lung C] Abstract

Oxidative Stress Mediates the Disruption of Airway Epithelial Tight Junctions through a TRPM2-PLCγ1-PKCα Signaling Pathway
In human bronchial epithelial-16 cells, researchers demonstrated the degradation of zonula occludens-1, and claudin-2 exhibited a great dependence on the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 channel, phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) and the protein kinase Cα (PKCα) signaling cascade. [Int J Mol Sci]
Abstract | Full Article


RIP1 Potentiates Benzo[a]Pyrene Diol Epoxide-Induced Transformation in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells through Catalase-Mediated Suppression of Excessive Reactive Oxygen Species
Investigators found that receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) expression is substantially increased in human non-small cell lung cancer and mouse lung tumor tissues. RIP1 expression was remarkably increased in cigarette smoke-exposed mouse lung. [Carcinogenesis] Abstract

Antitumor Activity of Pimasertib, a Selective MEK 1/2 Inhibitor, in Combination with PI3K/mTOR Inhibitors or with Multi-Targeted Kinase Inhibitors in Pimasertib-Resistant Human Lung and Colorectal Cancer Cells
The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of pimasertib, a selective MEK 1/2 inhibitor, alone or in combination with a PI3K inhibitor, a mTOR inhibitor, or with multi-targeted kinase inhibitors, that block also BRAF and CRAF, were tested in a panel of eight human lung and colon cancer cell lines. [Int J Cancer] Abstract

TGF-β1 Exposure Induces Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition both in CSCs and Non-CSCs of the A549 Cell Line, Leading to an Increase of Migration Ability in the CD133+ A549 Cell Fraction
Scientists demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in both cancer stem cells (CSC) and non-CSC A549 sublines, upregulating the expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and Slug, and downregulating levels of epithelial markers such as e-cadherin and cytokeratins. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Metformin Inhibits Growth and Enhances Radiation Response of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) through ATM and AMPK
Researchers examined the potential of metformin to enhance non-small cell lung cancer responses to ionising radiation. Metformin inhibited proliferation and radio-sensitised NSCLC cells. [Brit J Cancer] Abstract

The Motor Protein KIF14 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cancer Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma
Using loss of heterozygosity and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses, investigators observed a 30% loss in the regions surrounding KIF14 on chromosome 1q in lung adenocarcinomas. [PLoS One]
Full Article

Differentiation Doesn't Have to be Difficult - Get Easy, Standardized hPSC Differentiation

Chronic Lung Disease in the Neonate: Past, Present, and Future
This review takes a quick look at past achievements that have led to the current status of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and projects on the potential of stem cell-based therapies to protect the ever more immature lung from injury. [Neoreviews] Abstract

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ResMed Noninvasive Ventilation Device Cleared by FDA for COPD Treatment
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently cleared ResMed’s home variable positive airway pressure (VPAP) device – also known as bilevel PAP – for the treatment of respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), giving severe COPD sufferers a weapon in the fight to stay out of the hospital. [ResMed] Press Release

Lung Cancer Survivors from Across the Nation Gather to Share, Hope and Heal at LUNGevity’s Third Annual Hope Summit
LUNGevity Foundation is gathering nearly 100 lung cancer survivors and caregivers nationwide for the 2013 LUNGevity Hope Summit, May 3-5, 2013 in Arlington, Va. The conference, taking place during Lung Cancer Hope Month, is designed for lung cancer survivors of all ages and stages of disease, currently in or out of treatment. [LUNGevity Foundation] Press Release

STEMCELL Technologies Inc. Obtains License from iPS Academia Japan for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technologies

STEMCELL Technologies Inc. has signed an agreement to license iPS Academia Japan’s induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) technologies. This agreement will enable STEMCELL Technologies to develop media that are optimized for cellular reprogramming, further expanding its extensive portfolio of products designed to facilitate cutting-edge pluripotent stem cell research. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Gordon Research Seminar – Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering
July 27-28, 2013
Holderness, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Respiratory Research (INSERM)

NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Sensory Pathways in Mammalian Airway Epithelia (Washington University)

Postdoctoral Position – Cardiopulmonary Molecular Biology (Hannover Medical School)

Post-doctoral Position – Mucosal Immunology (University of Southern California)

PhD Opportunity – Biofunctionalization of Liposomes for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery (University of East Anglia)

Postdoctoral Position – Pulmonary Research (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center)

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