Volume 2.12 | Mar 28

Pulmonary Cell News 2.12 March 28, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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TOP STORY
TPL2 Kinase Is a Suppressor of Lung Carcinogenesis
Scientists report that Tumor Progression Locus 2 (TPL2), a kinase implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, fulfils a role as a suppressor of lung carcinogenesis and is subject to diverse genetic and epigenetic aberrations in lung cancer patients. They showed that allelic imbalance at the TPL2 locus, up-regulation of microRNA-370, which targets TPL2 transcripts, and activated rat sarcoma signaling may result in down-regulation of TPL2 expression. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract


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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Induces Apoptosis in Human Airway Epithelial Cells: Implications of a Novel Interaction between Nucleoprotein and Host Protein Clusterin
Scientists observed that nucleoprotein (NP) contributes to influenza A virus (IAV) infection induced cell death and heterologous expression of NP alone can induce apoptosis in human airway epithelial cells. The apoptotic effect of IAV NP was significant when compared with other known proapoptotic proteins of IAV. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Chemosensory Brush Cells of the Trachea: A Stable Population in a Dynamic Epithelium
Tracheal brush cells (BC) are specialized epithelial chemosensors which utilize the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect irritants. To test whether the adult epithelium retains the capacity to generate BCs, tracheal epithelial cells were recovered from adult mice and grown in an air-liquid interface culture. After transition to differentiation conditions, BCs were detected and were 1% of the total cell population by day 14. [Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol] Abstract

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Modulates Lung Endothelial Cell Inflammatory Responses to TNFα
Researchers investigated the role of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) on primary lung microvascular endothelial cell activation by relevant cytokines such as TNFα or IL-1β. Despite initial marked augmentation of TNFα self-induced transcription, A1AT inhibited TNFα receptor 1 upregulation and significantly reduced TNFα secretion, effects that were associated with inhibition of the TNFα converting enzyme activity. [Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol] Abstract

A Role of PGT in Regulating PGE2 Release from BEAS-2B Cells in Response to LPS
Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and prostaglandin transporter (PGT) inhibitors were tested to evaluate contribution of PGT to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release by assessing its extracellular concentration and characterizing PGT-mediated PGE2 efflux in Xenopus laevis oocytes. As a result, LPS elevated mRNA expression of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and extracellular concentration of PGE2 in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. [J Endocrinol] Abstract

NOD-Like Receptors Mediated Activation of Eosinophils Interacting with Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Link between Innate Immunity and Allergic Asthma
Researchers elucidated the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)1 and NOD2-mediated activation of human eosinophils, the principal effector cells for allergic inflammation, upon interacting with human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells in allergic asthma. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

12/15-Lipoxygenase Expressed in Non-Epithelial Cells Causes Airway Epithelial Injury in Asthma
Investigators showed that 12/15-lipoxygenase(LOX) expressed in nonepithelial cells caused epithelial injury in asthma pathogenesis. While 12/15-LOX overexpression or IL-13 administration to naïve mice showed airway epithelial injury, 12/15-LOX knockout/knockdown in allergic mice reduced airway epithelial injury. [Sci Rep]
Full Article

LUNG CANCER

Steroid Sulphatase and Oestrogen Sulphotransferase in Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma
Investigators evaluated the immunoreactivity of steroid sulphatase (STS) and oestrogen sulphotransferase (EST) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases using immunohistochemistry. The function of STS and EST was further demonstrated using NSCLC cell lines. [Brit J Cancer] Abstract

Activation of the FGF2-FGFR1 Autocrine Pathway: A Novel Mechanism of Acquired Resistance to Gefitinib in NSCLC Cells
Scientists have established a gefitinib-resistant cell line model by long-term exposure to gefitinib. They used originally gefitinib-sensitive lung cancer cell lines, namely PC9 and HCC827. They found that the expressions of both FGFR1 and FGF2 were increased in PC9 gefitinib-resistant cells compared to those in PC9 naïve cells. [Mol Cancer Res] Abstract

Investigation of Radiation-Induced Transcriptome Profile of Radioresistant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells Using RNA-seq
Using RNA-seq, a massive sequencing-based approach, scientists examined whole-transcriptome alteration in radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells under irradiation, and verified significant radiation-altered genes and their chromosome distribution patterns. They found that epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and inflammatory processes could be meaningfully related to regulation of radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Aldo-Keto Reductase 1C3 May Be a New Radioresistance Marker in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Scientists explored the role of AKR1C3 in the radiosensitivity to X-rays of human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to target the AKR1C3 gene was used. Although AKR1C3 was significantly overexpressed in both radioresistant subclone cells and NSCLC tissues, a specific AKR1C3 siRNA significantly enhanced cell radiosensitivity and was concomitant with decreased expression of this gene. [Cancer Gene Ther] Abstract

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REVIEWS
T Cell-Mediated Host Immune Defenses in the Lung
This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding how T lymphocytes mediate pulmonary host defenses against bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens.
[Annu Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pulmonary cell research field.
INDUSTRY NEWS

Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) to Model Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Dr. Brigitte Gomperts from UCLA received $934,515 from the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine for her grant proposal: “Using induced pluripotent stem cells to model idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).” Dr. Gomperts plans to collect samples from IPF patients that will be reprogrammed to establish a bank of pluripotent IPF stems cells that can be used for multiple research studies. [Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation] Press Release

FDA Approves TOBI Podhaler to Treat a Type of Bacterial Lung Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved TOBI Podhaler (tobramycin inhalation powder) for the management of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that causes lung infections. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration] Press Release

CPF, PFF, and ATS Announce New Research Grant for Pulmonary Fibrosis Research
The Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis (CPF), the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation (PFF), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS)-the world’s leading professional organization for pulmonary, critical care and sleep medicine-announced that the CPF and the PFF will again partner with the ATS to fund pulmonary fibrosis research. This is the seventh partnership grant between the three organizations. [Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation] Press Release

Lung Cancer Alliance Gratified that Federal Funding for Lung Cancer Research Maintained in the FY2013 Continuing Resolution
The Lung Cancer Alliance commended the US Congress on the passage of a Continuing Resolution for the remainder of FY2013 that includes $10.5 million in funding for the Department of Defense Lung Cancer Research Program. This would bring the total funding so far for this program, which was established in 2009, to nearly $70 million. [PR Newswire LLC] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW World Asthma, Allergy & COPD Forum
April 27-30, 2013
London, United Kingdom


Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pulmonary cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

PhD Studentship – Impaired Mucosal Immunity in Severe Asthma (Université Catholique de Louvain)

Postdoctoral Associate – Molecular Cell Biology (Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar)

Postdoctoral Position – Cardiopulmonary Molecular Biology (Hannover Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Lung Fibrosis (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Lung and Vascular Biology (University of Illinois at Chicago)

Research Associate (University of Chicago – Department of Medicine)

PhD Position – Airway Inflammation (University of Heidelberg)


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