Volume 2.07 | Feb 21

Pulmonary Cell News 2.07 February 21, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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TOP STORY
Hepatocyte Growth Factor, a Determinant of Airspace Homeostasis in the Murine Lung
Scientists explored hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a pleiotrophic cytokine that promotes epithelial proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and resistance to apoptosis, as a candidate mediator of alveolar formation and regeneration. Mice deficient in the expression of the HGF receptor Met in lung epithelial cells demonstrated impaired airspace formation marked by a reduction in alveolar epithelial cell abundance and survival, truncation of the pulmonary vascular bed, and enhanced oxidative stress. [PLoS Genet]
 
Full Article | Press Release

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

The NF-κB Inhibitory Proteins IκBα and IκBβ Mediate Disparate Responses to Inflammation in Fetal Pulmonary Endothelial Cells
In newborn rats exposed to intra-amniotic LPS, scientists found increased expression of the NF-κB target gene manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the pulmonary endothelium. Supporting these in vivo findings, LPS induced NF-κB activation and MnSOD expression in isolated fetal pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Innate Immune Response of Human Alveolar Type II Cells Infected with SARS-Coronavirus
Researchers report that cultivation of alveolar type II cells at an air-liquid interface provides primary cultures in which to study the pulmonary innate immune responses to infection with SARS-CoV and to explore possible therapeutic approaches to modulating their innate immune response. [Am J Resp Cell Mol] Abstract

Relationship between Bradykinin-Induced Relaxation and Endogenous Epoxy-Eicosanoid Synthesis in Human Bronchi
Investigators hypothesized that Bradykinin (BK) may stimulate endogenous epoxy-eicosanoids (EET) production in human bronchi. To test this hypothesis, the relaxing and hyperpolarizing effects of BK and 14,15-EET were quantified on human bronchi, as well as the effects of various enzymatic inhibitors on these actions. [Am J Physiol – Lung C] Abstract

Overexpression of Sulf2 in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Researchers focused on the role of heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatase (Sulf)2 in modulating TGF-β1 function and the development of pulmonary fibrosis. They found that Sulf2 mRNA was overexpressed in lung samples from human patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and Sulf2 protein was specifically localized to the hyperplastic type II alveolar epithelial cells. [Glycobiology] Abstract

In Vitro Effects of Aldehydes Present in Tobacco Smoke on Gene Expression in Human Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Investigators exposed A549 cells in vitro to aldehydes and non-aldehyde chemicals (nicotine, hydroquinone and 2,5-dimethylfuran) present in tobacco smoke and used microarrays to obtain a global view of the transcriptomic responses. [Toxicol In Vitro] Abstract

LUNG CANCER


A Cancer Stem Cell Model for Studying Brain Metastases from Primary Lung Cancer
Scientists applied previously developed primary solid tumor-initiating cell models to the study of brain metastases from the lung to evaluate the presence of a cancer stem cell population. Patient-derived brain metastases and the NCI-H1915 cell line were cultured as stem-enriching tumorspheres. For the first time, they demonstrated the presence of a stemlike population in brain metastases from the lung. [J Natl Cancer I] Abstract

Mouse Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Cancer
Genetic rearrangement of the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase was recently identified as a distinct molecular signature for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, direct evidence of lung carcinogenesis induced by ROS1 fusion genes remains to be verified. Researchers showed that EZR-ROS1 plays an essential role in the oncogenesis of NSCLC harboring the fusion gene. [PLoS One] Full Article

Changes in the Secretory Profile of NSCLC-Associated Fibroblasts after Ablative Radiotherapy: Potential Impact on Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) isolated from freshly resected human lung tumors were exposed to ablative ionizing radiation (AIR) and analyzed for their release of paracrine factors. The researchers concluded that AIR mediates a transformation on the secretory profile of CAFs that could influence the behavior of other cells in the tumor tissue and hence guide to some extent therapeutic outcomes. [Transl Oncol] Abstract

Shedding of c-Met Ectodomain Correlates with c-Met Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Researchers measured soluble c-Met and c-Met levels in a panel of pre-clinical models and 197 advanced Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. They found that shedding of soluble c-Met associates with total c-Met amount in pre-clinical models, and that soluble c-Met correlates with both c-Met expression level and tumor size in humans, while high soluble c-Met predicts poorer outcome. [Biomarkers] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell: A Cell at the Cross-Roads in Asthma
The authors review the evidence to support the hypothesis that a primary defect in plasmacytoid dendritic cell function may underlie the development of asthma. [Eur Respir J] Abstract
INDUSTRY NEWS

Austin Dillon Racing in the DRIVE4COPD300 and Raising Awareness for COPD in 2013
The COPD Foundation announced the appointment of Richard Childress Racing driver Austin Dillon as the new Honorary Ambassador for the DRIVE4COPD campaign, the country’s largest public health initiative dedicated to raising awareness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [Drive4COPD]
Press Release

Superstars Pilot a Guided Tour of the Biggest Cancer Killer for Women and Men in the USA
Lung Cancer Foundation of America’s new website is a novel tool for anyone facing lung cancer or seeking information about this disease, including patients, families, the medical community, the public at-large and the media. [PR Newswire Association LLC.] Press Release | Website

GSK and Theravance Announce FDA Acceptance of New Drug Application (NDA) Submission in the United States for ANORO ELLIPTATM for COPD
GlaxoSmithKline plc and Theravance, Inc. announced that the New Drug Application for the investigational once-daily LAMA/LABA combination medicine, UMEC/VI, for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indicating that the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. [GlaxoSmithKline plc.]
Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Asthma & COPD
London, United Kingdom
April 15-16, 2013

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pulmonary cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Fellows – Gene, RNA and Epigenetic Regulation, Protein Science, Signal Transduction, Cell and Stem Cell, Cancer and Other Diseases (Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Translational Studies of Interstitial Lung Disease (University of California San Francisco)

Postdoctoral/ Research Associate/ Senior Research Associate – Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cell Biology (University of Southern California)

PhD Studentship – Toxicology (CRP – Gabriel Lippmann)

PhD Studentship – Impaired Mucosal Immunity in Severe Asthma (Université Catholique de Louvain)

Postdoctoral Associate – Molecular Cell Biology (Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar)

Postdoctoral Position – Cardiopulmonary Molecular Biology (Hannover Medical School)


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